Wednesday, June 2, 2010

General Studies – II (Code No : 009)

General Studies – II
(Code No : 009)
Standard : Degree
Total Marks : 200
Nature of Paper : Conventional Type
Duration : 3 Hours

Note :
Answers to this paper must be written either in English or in Marathi.

The Nature and standard of questions in the paper will be such that a well educated person will be able to answer without any specialised study and its intention is to test candidate’s general awareness of a variety of subjects.

This paper will test the candidate’s ability to comprehend, to analyse, to criticise subject matter related to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.

It is expected from candidates to study the latest and recent developments and happenings pertaining to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.

Section - A ( Marks : 40 )
India in World Affairs
Foreign Policy of India :

Basic Principles, Objectives, and Determinants of foreign policy.

India and Neighbours: Conflict and Co-operation.

India and Indian Ocean.

Foreign Economic Policy of India: Aid, Trade and economic cooperation.
Nuclear Policy of India :

Salient features.

Determinants of Nuclear Tests:
Pokhran I (1974) and Pokhran II (1998)

Recent Trends in Nuclear Policy such as NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) and CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.)
India's External and Internal Security Concerns :

Terrorism, Insurgency, Regional and Sub-regional conflicts; Socio-economic imbalances; Naxalite Movements, Separatist Movements, Communal Violences and Caste Conflicts.

Law Enforcement Mechanism and Judiciary.
a)     Existing Laws and Regulations with reference to Maharashtra.
b)     Intelligence and Security Agencies.
c)     Treaties of Extradition and Interpol.
International Affairs and Institutions :

Emerging important issues and events in international relations (1990 onwards) : Political, Strategic and Economic considerations.

Regional and International Institutions:
a)     SAARC, ASEAN, NAM, Commonwealth of Nations and European Union.
b)     United Nations System: Its Charter and Organs, (General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council and International Court of Justice)
c)     UN Agencies: UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, UN Peace Keeping Forces, UNCHR, ILO and WHO.
Section – B ( Marks : 40 )
Indian Economy, Planning, Trade, Rural Development
Planning : Process - Types - Review of India's First to Tenth Five year Plans.  Evaluation. Social and Economic Indicators of Development.  State and Local Level Planning.  Decentralisation  - 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments.
Indian Economy - trends in Sectoral Development and profile of service Sector. Challenges in Indian Economy - Poverty, Unemployment and Regional Imbalances.

Urban and Rural Infrastructure Development: Need and Significance.  Growth and Development of Social and economic infrastructure such as Energy, Water supply and sanitation, Housing, Transport (Road, Ports etc.)  Communications (Post and Telegraphs, Telecommunication), Network of Radio, TV, Internet.  Crises, problems related to Infrastructure in India.  Policy alternatives - Public-Private Sector Partnership.  FDI and Infrastructure Development - Privatisation of infrastructure development.  Centre and State Government Policies for Infrastructure Development.  Transport and Housing (Urban and Rural). Problems - Centre and State Government initiatives and programmes.

Industry : Need - importance and role of industries in economic and social development, Growth Pattern, Structure of Large-scale Industries in India with special reference to Maharashtra. Small-scale, Cottage and Village industries Problems Prospects of Small scale, cotage and village industry. Impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation on SSIs.  State Government Policy, measures and programmes for development, promotion and monitoring of SSIs (with special reference to Maharashtra) Export Potential of Small scale and cottage industries.

Co-operation: Concept, Meaning, Objectives, Old and new principles of co-operation.  Growth and diversification of co-operative movement in India. Co-operative institution in Maharashtra – types, role, importance and diversification. State policy and Co-operative sector - Legislation, Supervision, Audit and Aid.  Problems of Co-operatives in Maharashtra.  Prospects of Cooperatives in the era of global competition.

Economic reforms: Background, Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation – (concept, meaning, scope and limitations). Economic Reforms at Centre and State Level.  WTO Regime - Provisions and its implications and impact on Indian Economy, issues and problems.

International Trade and International Captial Movements: Emerging Trends in era of globalisation.  Growth, Composition and Direction of India's Foreign Trade. Foreign trade policy of India - Export Promotion.  WTO and International Trade. Foreign Capital Inflows - Composition and Growth - FDI. e-Commerce.  Role of Multinationals - International Financing Agencies – (IMF, World Bank and IDA).  International Credit Ratings.

Public Finance: Sources of revenue - tax, non-tax and public debt of Centre and States in India.  Public Expenditure (Centre and States) - Growth and causes. Public Expenditure Reform - Performance Based Budgeting and Zero - Based Budgeting.  review of  Tax Reforms at national and State level. VAT.
Public debt - Growth, Composition and Burden.  Problem of States' Indebtedness to Centre.
Fiscal Deficits - Concepts, Control of Deficits - Centre, State and RBI Initiatives.
Fiscal Reforms in India - Review at Centre and State Level.

Section - C ( Marks : 40 )
Natural Resource Development
Agriculture: Importance of Agriculture in National Economy - Causes of low productivity - Government policies, schemes and programmes for agriculture production and developments such as land reforms and land utilisation, soil and water conservation, rainfed farming, Irrigation and its methods, Agriculture inputs (improved seeds, Fertilizers and Manures, Pest Management, Mechanization of Agriculture). Problem of rural indebtedness, Agriculture credit- need, importance and Financial Institutions involved therein. Agriculture pricing- components, factors affecting prices of various Agriculture produces - Govt. support prices of various agriculture produces, Subsidies. Agriculture Marketing - present status, Value added products.  Role of Govt and its institutes in agriculture marketing.

Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development: Its role, importance and significance in National Economy, Livestock in India particularly in Maharashtra, Govt policies, schemes and programmes for livestock development including livestock breeds, feeds and fodder, Healthcare - Role of milk, meat and poultry products in human nutrition, White Revolution, Co-operative dairy enterprises in Maharashtra.

Development of fisheries:  Its role and significance in national economy, scope and development of fisheries in India and particularly in Maharashtra, Causes of low productivity and Govt efforts to overcome it, export of marine products.

Horticulture: Importance and scope of fruit and plantation crops with reference to Maharashtra, Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition, Major fruit Plants, vegetable crops and flower plants of Maharashtra, Horticultural crops suitable for dryland and rainfed condition. Problems and its solutions of low productivity. Processing, packaging, transportation, marketing of Horticultural Products. Government schemes and programs for Horticulture development and marketing, Government Agencies and Institutes engaged in Horticulture development.

Forestry: Its role in enhancing the quality of environment, Causes and effects of deforestation, Problems and issues related to forestry - Government policies and afforestration programmes (Social forestry, Agroforestry), Utilisation of forest products, Role of Government, Voluntary Organisation and local community in forest development.

Food and Nutrition: Food - trends in Food production and consumption in India, First and ensuing second Green Revolutions, Self-sufficiency in food, Problem of food security, Problems and issues of storage, procurement, distribution, import and export of food. Calorific value of foods and its measurement, Energy and nutrient needs of human body for better health and balanced diet - common nutritional problems in India and its causes and effects, Govt. Policies, schemes, programs such as PDS, Food for work, Mid-day Meal Scheme and other nutritional programs.

Section - D ( Marks : 40 )
Scientific and Technological Developments
Energy: Conventional and non-conventional energy sources - Potential of Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Geothermal and other renewable energy sources. Introduction to solar gadgets viz solar cooker, water heater etc. Biogas- principle, and process.
Problems of Energy Crises, Govt. Policies and programs for power generation. Nuclear Power Program, Thermal Power Program, Hydroelectric Power program, Power distribution and National Grid. Agencies and Institutions engaged in Energy security, Research and development.

Computer: Role of computer in modern society,  its applications in various spheres of life such as data communication, networking and web technologies, Cyber crime and its prevention.
Information Technology: as a new industry - use of I.T. in various services and faculties of knowledge. Growth and present status of I.T. industry in India, Govt. programs such as Media Lab Asia, Vidya Vahini, Gyan Vahini, Community Information Centre etc. Major issues in IT industry - its prospects.

Space Technology: Indian space programmes, Artificial satellites - types and applications, Indian Artificial satellites for telecommunication, television, education, broadcasting, weather forecasting, GPS, disaster warning. Indian missile program etc.
Remote sensing, GIS and its application in weather forecasting, Disaster warning, water, soil, mineral resources development, agriculture and fisheries development, urban planning, ecological studies, GS and GIS.

Water Resources: Significance of water in human & national development, National and State Water Policy, Water Resources - potential, planning and development in India particularly in Maharashtra,  Intrastate and Interstate River water disputes, Various irrigation projects, National programme of flood management, Groundwater development in India particularly in Maharashtra. National and State Agencies engaged in water resource development and research.

Ocean Development: Role of the seas in climatic changes and monsoon in India, Marine living and non-living resources development, causes and effect of sea pollution and coastal degradation, Coastal and Marine Area Management, CRZ Regulation, Coastal Community Development.  Govt. programs and activities for ocean resources development, Ocean observing and research.

Meteorology: Earth atmosphere - its composition, extent and structure. Atmospheric weather variables (Parameters), Weather forecasting system, cloud formation and movement - Monsoon model - crop yield model.

Environment: Ecosystems - Biodiversity and balance ecosystem - Biosphere Reserve (wetlands, mangroves coral reefs). Pollution: Types and sources, its impact on environment and related problems, Govt. efforts to prevent and control of pollution, Govt. legislation and programs.  Sustainable development in field of agriculture, industry, urban habitant, etc. Govt. and Voluntary agencies engaged in Environmental protection activities at national and international level.

Biotechnology: Its potential to improve human life and national economy through agricultural, industrial development and employment generation. Biotechnology as an essential and important tool of natural resource development. Areas of application - Agriculture, Animal breeding and Veterinary health-care, Pharmaceutics, Human healthcare, Food technology, energy generation, environment protection etc. Role and efforts of government in promoting, regulating and developing biotechnology in country.  Ethical, Social, Legal issues related to biotechnological development, possible adverse effects of biotechnological development.
Section – E ( Marks : 40 )
Statistical Analysis, Graphs and Diagrams
Classification and Tablulation of Data given in descriptive form.

Computation and interpretation of Mean, Median, Mode of Data given.

Conversion of Tabular data / information in a) Diagram - Venn, bar, Pie diagram. b) Graph - Line graph, Histogram, Polygon.

Interpretation of Data / Information given in Tabular and Diagramatic / Graphical Form.

Pointing out deficiencies, limitations, in consistencies in the given Data.

To prepare Algorithm and Flow chart for solving simple problems in organisation.

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